Dr Sayid Ruqayya, HOD Persian Division, College of Kashmir, translated the Persian e book, Tuhfa Ashrafiah, authored by Hafiz Mohammad Hasan bin Hafiz Wali-ul-lah, into Urdu in 2003. She meant to jot down concerning the creator within the introduction, however she discovered little point out about him within the historical past books. After I met her in her workplace, I offered her the household tree of the creator together with a few of the creator’s books in my possession, for which she has expressed her gratitude in her translator’s notice to the e book, Tazkira Mashaikhin-i-Kashmir, revealed in 2003. Just lately I translated the e book into English and it’s accessible on Amazon.com.
Writing about Hafiz Hasan, she states: “Although the arrival of Persians in Kashmir and the historical past of the affect of the Persian language may be very historical, but it’s a longtime incontrovertible fact that together with the unfold of Islam, the lamp of the Persian language and literature additionally lit up right here. Since a lot of the preachers of Islam had Persian as their mom tongue, so that they took shelter of this very language that brightened the valley of Kashmir with the rays of Islam. This language entered right here within the type of Islamic language and due to its sweetness and various capabilities, it turned not solely a well-liked language but in addition succeeded to seek out its place as an official language.” (01)
Consequently, not solely the Muslim poets and writers watered the backyard of this language and literature with their vibrant artistry, but it surely additionally being an essential language of its time, the non-Muslim poets and writers additionally embraced it and contributed sufficiently to its literature. Historical past is witness to the truth that the backyard of the language and literature of Persian language flourished not solely below the Muslim rulers (Shahmiris, Chaks, Mughals, Afghans) but in addition the lamp of this language and its literature continued to shine below the non-Muslim rulers (Sikhs, Dogras). Although the time of Afghans, Sikhs and Dogras was a interval of atrocities, on all sides there have been unfold the clouds of concern, harassment, ache and restlessness; however regardless of the situations, the clever students, writers and honoured Sufis continued to serve the reason for information and literature. On the entire, the situation of Muslims below Sikh and Dogra rule was extraordinarily hopeless. On the social and financial entrance, the Muslims have been victims of downtrodden situations and poverty, however as far as the literature and poetry is worried, this era too will not be devoid of some good poets, writers and Auliyas and there may be the color of Tasawuf and religious information dominant of their works.
Maharaja Pratap Singh was enthroned in 1885 AD. Although the Persian language had the standing of court docket language in his very early interval, but he supplied the standing of court docket language to Urdu afterward. GMD Sofi writes in his e book “Kashir” that Persian was the court docket language just a few years earlier than 1917 (Kashir vol.2 p812).
The creator of the e book, Tuhfa Ashrafiah, Hafiz Mohammad Hasan bin Hafiz Wali-ul-lah, is the creation of this very interval of Dogra regime, however surprisingly sufficient, the historical past books and biographies of this era are silent about him. As a substitute, it is probably not an exaggeration to state that no worthwhile biography has been written about a lot of the poets, writers and nice Mashaikhs of the final a part of this era, whereby we might find out about their life and their literary contributions.
As acknowledged earlier, now we have restricted information concerning the biography of Hafiz Mohammad Hasan and the one sources of it are the superficial statements recorded in his two accessible revealed books, particularly Tuhfa Akmalyah and Tuhfa Ashrafia. Apart from these books, Hafiz Inayatullah (d.1405 AH) the son of Hafiz Mohammad Hasan, has described his household tree in Kashur Chihil Asrar: “Shaikh Ismail Al-Ahmadi was the third descendent of Hazrat Shaikh Ahmad Sarhindi Faroqi (Mujaddid Alf Thani d. 1033 AH) and the twenty-ninth descendent of Hazrat Umar Farooq Khalifa Thani (RA). From my maternal lineage, Shaikh Ismail is my ninth ancestor.”
Shaikh Mohammad Ismael was attracted in the direction of religious information proper from the start. He coated the phases of salook below the well-known Mashaikh of Peshawur Shah Abbas, the Khalifa of Sadullah Gujrati, and benefitted by remaining in his service for twelve years. Ultimately he handed away in 1153 AH and was buried within the compound of his home close to the mausoleum of Khwaja Habibullah Attar (RA) at Gurgadi Mohalla in the direction of the facet of the Qibla alongside along with his household.
BIOGRAPHY AND DEATH
Hafiz Mohammad Hasan was born in Mohalla Gankhan of Srinagar. His honoured father was Hafiz Wali-ul-lah. Mohi-ud-din
Miskin has talked about about him in his e book, Tarikh-i-Kabir, that: “He (Hafiz Mohammad Hasan) was his uncle and was one of many trainees of Shaikh Ahmad Yasvi. He spent forty years of his life within the service of his Pir information. On Fridays he would carry out the recitation of Dua-i-Saifi. He fell sufferer to a widespread illness and handed away on nineteenth Shawal 1309 AH and was buried within the compound of Khanqah-i-Mualla.” The historian data additional that “Hafiz Wali-ul-lah had three sons. Amongst these, Hafiz Mohammad who was ‘waiz’ and ‘Hafiz-i-Quran’ handed away when he was of the age of thirty-three years solely. He was buried in Kant-Mazar. The second son is Hafiz Ghulam Hasan who’s the Imam of Gadayar Masjid and his third son Mohammad Ahsan continues to be dwelling.”
From the above contents it’s revealed that on the time of writing of Tarikh-i-Kabir (i.e. 1310 AH), Hafiz Mohammad Hasan was appointed as Imam of Masjid Gadayar (Masjid-i-Zainul Abidin) after the dying of his father and continued to discharge the duties of Imam there. Additional, additionally it is revealed that the youthful brother of Hafiz Mohammad Hasan Hafiz, Mohammad Ahsan, was alive in 1310 AH however he had handed away on the time of the writing of the Tuhfa Akmalyah. (Tarikh-i-Kabir Vol 1 p 263, motion no. 2048 in Manuscript part Division of Analysis and Publication, College of Kashmir.)
Hafiz Wali-ul-lah was a terrific religious saint of his time. He would spend his time in instructing and writing the Quran. He was distinctive in the best way he delivered sermons and was unparalleled in pleasing discussions. In Tuhfa Akmalyah, Hafiz Mohammad Hasan has talked about the names of his lecturers at totally different locations, like about Shaikh Mohammad Khalil.
No different details about Hafiz Mohammad Hasan is understood. Neither the 2 dependable historians of this (Dogra) interval, Hasan Shah Khoihami and Mohi-ud-din Miskin, have talked about about him of their historical past books. Maybe it is because of the truth that even after the dying of the acknowledged historians, Hafiz Mohammad Hasan continued to dwell for just a few years extra. Likely, Hafiz should have died between 1353 AH and 1364 AH (03) as he had himself obtained revealed the e book Sultani authored by Mulla Baha-ud-din Mattoo and his personal e book Tuhfa Ashrafia throughout 1351 AH-1352 AH. About this, Hafiz Mohammad Hasan data on the final web page of the revealed e book Sultani (1352 AH) some particulars.
Hafiz Mohammad Hasan is buried in his ancestral graveyard “Mazar Mohammad Shah Kant”. His two sons Hafiz Nematullah Waiz and Hafiz Inayatullah (d.1405 AH) are additionally buried alongside him.
HIS BOOKS AND RESEARCH REVIEWED
From the accessible books of Hafiz Mohammad Hasan it’s revealed that he was a terrific scholar having mastery of Arabic and Persian languages and he wrote many books in each these languages. Among the many books, solely the Tuhfa Ashrafiah andTuhfa Akmalyah can be found to us. However earlier than them the creator had authored two books, particularly, Charag-i-Lataif and Fatoohat-i-Kubraviah. The creator writes within the preface of Tuhfa Akmalyah: “Charag-i-Lataif was accomplished in 1334 AH and Pir Azizullah Haqqani had composed its chronogram on its completion.” In all probability the opposite books of Hafiz Mohammad Hasan could also be current within the private libraries of his progeny. As far as the manuscripts on the Division of Analysis and Publications are involved, there is no such thing as a different e book accessible there.
Apart from being a terrific religious saint of his time, Hafiz Mohammad Hasan was a terrific scholar and researcher of Islamic information. He was reciter (qari). He had a private library, wherefrom the seekers of reality used to profit, however with the passage of time his private library couldn’t stay secure and besides just a few books, solely the names of his different books have remained as such. The e book into account, Tuhfa Ashrafiah, was devoted by the creator to a terrific religious saint and non secular chief within the time of Sikh rule, particularly, Shaikh Mohammad Ashraf Fatehkadli, referred to as Asha Baba Sahib. (Since on this e book there’s a point out of one other nice Mashaikh, so the creator has named its Urdu translation as “Tazkira Mashaikhin-i-Kashmir”.) The stated Shaikh (RA) had been a Sufi of nice standing and extremely honoured Wali-i-Kamil. Shaikh Ahmad Tarabali (RA) had been his shut disciple and scholar. He wrote a pamphlet, particularly, ‘Afzal-ul-Taraiq’, on the biography, instinct, miracles and religious information of the stated Shaikh. Shaikh Fatehkadli (RA) himself had curiosity in poetry and had full command over Persian language and literature.
So far as the Tuhfa Ashrafia (named as Tazkira Mashaikhin-i-Kashmir) is worried, in addition to being informative it has a literary significance as properly. Its language is easy, generally understood and pleasing, whereby it turns into clear that the creator had full mastery over Persian. Apart from being a author of prose and a scholar, Hasan was a poet as properly. We come throughout a few of his couplets which add to the fantastic thing about the which means of the narration.
Hafiz Mohammad Hasan made efforts to convey essential details about the good Mashaikh and the honoured Sufis. His prose seems to be straightforward from exterior, however from the standpoint of its which means it’s in truth very deep and troublesome. Apart from being a scholar of Persian, he was a scholar of Arabic as properly. Together with the Persian content material he mentions at locations the aayats of Quran and the sacred Hadith, by which the significance of his books will get multiplied.
Hafiz Mohammad Hasan had written his books after consulting and evaluating totally different genuine and dependable books of historical past. He offered spiritual thought and beliefs in extraordinarily plain phrases and in pleasing Persian language
(English translation with addition by Er Mohammad Ashraf Fazili)